Apply Reduce, Reuse, Recycle While Going Green In The Kitchen

 

Going green in the kitchen encompasses everything from what you eat to how you cook it  There are tons of things you can do in your kitchen that will help lessen your impact on the environment. From using a water saving faucet, to energy efficient appliances to cleaning with non-toxic cleaners, going green in the kitchen can be great for the environment as well as for your budget.

 

 

REDUCE

One little thing you can do is reduce your use of paper towels.  The average family uses several rolls of paper towels a week but you can reduce your usage by keeping some cloth towels handy in the kitchen and use those for wiping your hands,  spills and other uses that would normally call for a paper towel. I like micro fiber cloths  You’ll save money on paper towels and there will be less of them in the landfill which, in turn, helps the environment  Also, the less paper towels that are manufactured, the less pollution in the air from those manufacturing plants.

Use microfiber cloths to clean up spills. They are also great to clean glass, stainless steel, and stove tops, microwaves etc. By doing this you reserve the use of paper towels for draining bacon and other fried foods. Use cloth napkins, avoid paper, Styrofoam and other convenience items Reduce by Using rags for items like scratch cover polish and just throw them away. Also use rags for other chores like cleaning cabinets, walls , woodwork and floors. These can be washed and reused as long as there is any use left in them.

REUSE

Any Item can be reused including clothes, rags, furniture, Glass jars,  Just think a minute and you will add a lot to the list.  I save paper from the printer like that last page they just have to add on at the end with one sentence on it. I cut them in half 5 1/2 x 8 and clip a stack with one of those big black clips to form a pad. why buy steno pads when this work just as well. You reduce the need to make more paper. You reuse  the paper at hand , and when it is no longer needed you recycle the paper you wrote on.

 

Did you realize that some types of cooking are more energy efficient than others?  While many cooks love a gas stove, the fact is that the newer model electric stoves are more energy efficient  Not only that, but if you opt for a toaster oven or microwave instead of using your big oven, you can drastically reduce the energy needed for cooking. Another method of cooking that greatly reduces the amount of energy being used are convection ovens. Many microwaves have convection oven features in them  use it whenever possible as it cooks more evenly and saves a great deal of energy.

Reduce the cost of Energy with LED Bulbs

I save quite a bit by putting dimmer capable Led bulbs in the fan light. You can dim them down to use as a night light. The electric company gives you 5 Led bulbs if you bring incandescent bulbs in to their scheduled day, I t is held approximately once a month. In our town it is held at the senior center.  My favorite place to by bulbs is  Batteries & bulbs and more. I  bought some dimmable bulbs there last week and the electric company  pays them a rebate. On one package of bulbs I saved &7.00.

REFUSE

Another thing you can do in the kitchen to help the environment is buy local whenever you can. While this might seem like a small thing, transporting food is actually a big drag on the environment. Flying bananas into upstate New York from the tropics can be costly in terms of air pollution.  Not to mention that foods from the grocery store can be loaded with pesticides which damage the environment and your health with GMO’s  Your local growers probably don’t put so much junk on their crops.  Plus, it’s nice to support the farmers in your own community. We have a farm market on the town Green every Wednesday & Sunday. Seniors can get a book of coupons at the Sr. Center. Each coupon is worth $3.00. We also have  produce stand at one of the gas stations and another stand at a nursery in a nearby town.  Just google for farm markets in your area.

 

Using reusable cloth grocery bags, reusing jars I use canning jars for leftovers  This also saves because you can see what is in the jar and it doesn’t get forgotten to be lost. Composting organic materials are great ways to reduce waste.  You can compost your kitchen scraps, paper and even cardboard.  This will make great fodder for your garden and does double duty as it acts as an organic fertilizer saving you from buying fertilizer which saves you money and ensures that harmful chemicals don’t leach into the environment from commercial fertilizers you might have had to purchase.

Note: Some paper is needed to have a proper mix.

RECYCLE

Possibly the most important thing you can do to be greener in the kitchen is to recycle. Make sure you get a good handle on all the plastic and glass materials you use that can be recycled.  Check the rules at your landfill as to what has to be separated out and buy yourself some bins to help you keep things separate. My goal is to get enough people recycling so much that they pick u[ recycling every week and trash twice a month.

 

Lastly, you want to keep the environment in mind when you clean. Cleaners full of chemicals can be bad for the environment and the fumes from these can be harmful to the health of yourself and your family.  There are plenty of natural things you can use for cleaning like vinegar, baking soda and tea tree oil that will help keep your kitchen sparkling without harming you or the environment.

I recommend Melaleuca products. I have used them exclusively since 2005

http://www.melaleuca.com/susankelly

Fracking Effects Environment Air Water Soil Weather Health

Fracking effects the environment including air, water, soil weather and health. Who is concerned and what are they doing about it,  What measures are proposed and what are the people affected doing to take action

What is fracking: Using millions of gallons of water and secret chemicals, oil and gas companies crack open underground rock formations, forcing deposits of oil and gas tucked deep within the earth up to the surface.

There is great controversy about this process, combined with industry deregulation, this has landed our country smack in the middle of an ill-timed oil and gas rush.

Seemingly determined to get every last drop of oil and pocket of gas, the industry has worked itself into a  31-state frenzy, drilling next to homes, schools, even in the middle of cemeteries. They’re polluting air and water, making people sick, hurting communities and delaying our transition to clean, safe, renewable energy.

People Are Making a Joint Effort To Not Allow Fracking In Their Communities  Fight Back NOW!

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People are joining together because they feel they have the right to control what comes into their  community that will be harmful to the environment and the health of their families. Earth Justice is fighting alongside them—in the courts and in communities. Every day we are fighting to keep fracking out of places where it doesn’t belong, working to protect people impacted by this dangerous practice, and challenging fracked oil and gas infrastructure projects that will lock us into a future dependent on fossil fuels.

Together, we can keep communities safe and help our renewable energy economy flourish.

 

  • UnFracktured Communities: In communities across the country, people are standing up to the fracking industry, passing bans and limits on fracking and defending their right to do so in court. And when the oil and gas industry tries to bully communities into backing down, communities are fighting back—and winning.
  • Fracking and Community Control: Experts from New York, Colorado, California, Pennsylvania and Texas hosted a teleconference on the growing trend of community control over fracking.
  • Using Municipal Zoning to Limit or Ban Fracking in California Communities: Legal experts discuss options available to California communities that want to limit or ban fracking and other methods of oil and gas development.

The oil and gas industry may wish it were otherwise, but municipalities have the right to determine what types of development are appropriate within their borders.

We are firmly committed to defending that right.

Mary Ann Sumner

Town Supervisor of Dryden, NY, an Earth Justice client

Learn about Dryden’s fight.

 

 

One of the Items of most concern is water pollution. Have they really forgotten Love Canal and the famous victory of Erin Brockovich. Are we the citizens of the U.S so inconsequential to the profits of the oil companies?

Fracking’s problems go deeper than water pollution.

Salty, chemical-laden fluid leaked for two hours before anyone from Vantage Energy let Arlington city officials knew there had been an accident at the hydraulic fracturing well next to the Baptist church. It would be another 22 hours before they plugged the leak. In that time, 42,800 gallons of polluted liquid would flow into the sewers and streams of this suburban city wedged between Dallas and Fort Worth.

That was two months ago, and this week Arlington officials announced their investigation into the accident—caused by equipment failure—was complete. After taking water and soil samples, they announced that the waste water spewed from the well did not cause any significant damage to the environment. Vantage Energy’s biggest sin was not notifying the city of the accident when it first occurred. Even with this conclusion, the spill has raised concerns in frack-friendly Texas and beyond.

Companies  claim natural gas has is the bridge fuel—the climate-friendly alternative that will fuel society until green energy gets up to scale.

Then faucets started catching fire in Pennsylvania.  Earthquakes started shaking Oklahoma City. And evidence started accumulating that indicates the gas itself is a bigger threat to the climate than coal.

But all these problems tie back to the processes used to produce natural gas. The question is, could these processes be fixed so natural gas fulfills its promise as a climate change panacea?

Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, uses high-pressure slugs of chemicals, water, and sand to crack shale formations deep underground, unlocking methane gas trapped therein. America has been fracking since the ’40s, but production didn’t really take off until 2005. That year, the Bush Administration’s EPA exempted fracking from the Safe Drinking Water Act. This opened the fracking floodgates. “Half of shale gas produced in history has been produced in the last 4 years or so,” says Robert Howarth, an environmental scientist at Cornell University.

Even though they claim accidents like the one in Texas are rare. Things like burning faucets in Pennsylvania show that injection isn’t always permanent. In this case though, it would be wrong to focus on fracking’s waste water disposal problem—a single barrel of oil produces ten barrels of waste water. “The appropriate response is to figure out better well casing and surface handling procedures for all oil and gas,” writes Danny Reible, a chemical engineer at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, in an email.

Another solution is treating the water, either so it can be recycled and used again for other oil or gas projects, or clean enough for drinking or agriculture. The biggest hurdle to both options is logistics. Relying on treated water means a frack or oil play might not have water on demand. And shipping waste fluid to a treatment plant takes trucks, pipes, or trains. Infrastructure like that costs big money. Also, trucks can crash, pipes can burst, and trains can spill. It seems like water flows to places that are very inconvenient for gas industry public relations people.

And filthy water isn’t the only thing these wells belch out. Groundwater injection has also been linked to earthquakes. So far most have been relatively small—though some have reached up to 5.7 moment magnitude—but they happen in places where people are unused to the ground shaking. “In a few places because there have been earthquakes bigger than 4.5 and 5.5 caused by humans. The codes here aren’t used to them,” says Cliff Frohlich, a seismologist at the University of Texas in Austin. “The sensible approach would be to have zoning where you’re not doing injection disposal in the middle of cities like Dallas or Oklahoma City.”

Frohlich nominates the vast empty spaces of west Texas, where a 5.5 earthquake would shake like a tree falling in a forest with no one around to hear it. But, he points out, shipping the water to be injected elsewhere has the same logistical problems as does treating it. “You have to ship it, it spills, you’re dealing with chemicals,” Frohlich says. “People are probably more exposed to the water if you treat it than if you pump it into the ground.”

Then there’s the methane problem. Despite all the worries over fracking, natural gas is clean-burning. In the climate change-worried world of environmentalism, this has been the trump card. The issue is with methane that escapes before it can be burned. Over the past four years, a series of research papers have shown that fracking has very likely caused a huge increase in atmospheric methane.

Methane is a greenhouse gas, which means it traps energy and turns it into heat. And it is particularly potent. “If you cut methane emissions, you would stop global warming over the next few decades,” says Howarth, who was among the first to notice that fracking wells were releasing the gas. Shutting off these near-term temperature increases from methane would take some spark out of the fuse on the carbon bomb set to go off in the next few decades. (Carbon dioxide is a more potent greenhouse gas, but takes many decades to release its stored energy as heat.) “This idea that methane gas is a bridge fuel, is better than coal, is nonsense,” he says. Stronger regulations could help curb these unintentional emissions, but Howarth says resistance from gas companies means scientists still don’t know the extent of the threat.

The common thread in all these problems—and their potential solutions—is uncertainty. Uncertainty is the story of fracking. Recent changes—like a federal law passed in March making it mandatory for companies to disclose the ingredients used in each well—have helped, but each flow like that seems to be accompanied by an ebb. Like the Texas legislature’s decision last month to make it illegal for municipalities—like Arlington—to ban hydraulic fracturing. Speaking of Arlington, that faulty well has been repaired, and is one inspection away from reopening.

Public health and gas development

Where oil and gas development goes, health problems often follow.

Yet industry representatives and policymakers seeking to expand drilling often dismiss claims of health impacts as “personal anecdotes” and isolated incidents.

The primary reasons that public health risks posed by increasing gas development can be disputed:

  • A lack of established science. Widespread scientific investigation has only recently begun to investigate the relationship between gas development and public health impacts.
  • State governments, which are largely responsible for protecting the public from irresponsible oil and gas development, have until recently refused to consider the issue.
  • Even as they have become widespread, individual reports of health problems in the gas patch have been continually dismissed as anecdotal by industry and government.

To investigate the connection, between August 2011 and July 2012 Earthworks’ Oil & Gas Accountability Project (OGAP) researched the extent, types, and possible causes of health symptoms experienced by people living in the gas patches of Pennsylvania.

The main conclusions of the project — Gas Patch Roulette: How Shale Gas Development Risks Public Health in Pennsylvania:

  1. Contaminants associated with oil and gas development are present in air and water in many communities where development is occurring.
  2. Many residents have developed health symptoms that they did not have before—indicating the strong possibility that they are occurring because of gas development.
  3. By permitting widespread gas development without fully understanding its impacts to public health—and using that lack of knowledge to justify regulatory inaction—Pennsylvania and other states are risking the public’s health.

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Public Health Effects of Fracking Need Study, CDC Scientist Says

The U.S. should study whether hydraulic fracturing used to free natural gas from wells is a hazard to people or food sources, a top official at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said.

 

  1. rector of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The Environmental Protection Agency, which is preparing regulations to govern fracking with the Interior Department, plans to study the effect of the drilling procedure, also known as fracking, on drinking water. Additional studies

should examine whether wastewater from the wells can harm people or animals and vegetables they eat, said Christopher Portier,

 

 

“We do not have enough information to say with certainty whether shale gas drilling poses a threat to public health,” he said in an e-mail sent by Vivi Abrams, a spokeswoman.

President Barack Obama has lauded increased natural gas drilling as a way to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and on coal, which is more damaging to the environment when burned. Officials in his administration have been cautious when discussing possible health effects of hydraulic fracturing.

The EPA “will use its authorities to protect local residents if a driller endangers water supplies and the state and local authorities have not acted,” the agency’s administrator, Lisa Jackson, told Congress in May. Obama, she said, “has made clear that we need to extract natural gas without polluting our water supplies.”

Monitor Exposure

The fracking process injects water, sand and chemicals into deep shale formations to free natural gas. The compounds used should be monitored, Portier said, and drinking water wells should be tested before and after drilling. Studies also should address “all the ways people can be exposed” to fracking products, including through air, water, soil, plants and animals.

Increased use of the process has raised gas production, reduced prices 32 percent last year and spurred questions about the environmental effects.

The U.S. has sought to dismiss a lawsuit brought by New York Attorney General Eric T. Schneiderman against federal agencies, seeking stronger regulation of fracking at as many as 18,000 wells in his state. The petroleum industry says the lawsuit could shut down drilling in the Delaware River Basin “for many years to come” if successful.

‘Effective’ Regulation

“Measures required by state regulatory agencies in the exploration and production of deep shale natural gas and oil formations have been very effective in protecting drinking water aquifers from contamination attributable to fracking,” Chesapeake Energy, the second-largest producer of natural gas, said in a document in September explaining the process.

Portier wouldn’t say whether fracking should be stopped or more tightly regulated until studies are completed.

“Our role is to determine what the risks are, and it is up to the public to decide if they are OK with that risk,” he said.

U.S. natural gas production rose to a record 2.5 trillion cubic feet in October, a 15 percent increase from October 2008, the month before Obama was elected, according to an Energy Information Administration report issued Dec. 28.

Some “data of concern” are showing up at fracking sites, Portier said. Fluids used in drilling contain “potentially hazardous chemical classes” including petroleum distillates, volatile organic compounds and glycol ethers. Wastewater may also contain salts and be radioactive, he said.

In December, the EPA said for the first time that it had found chemicals consistent with those used in drilling in groundwater near wells in Wyoming. The driller, Encana Corp., has disputed the agency’s findings.

Methane, Earthquakes

Pennsylvania regulators warned residents near Scranton not to drink well water in September 2010 after methane was detected in the Susquehanna River and in wells near drilling sites.

Youngstown, Ohio residents say they’ve experienced earthquakes since D&L Energy Inc. began injecting fracking wastewater into a 9,300-foot disposal well. Ben Lupo, president and chief executive officer of the company, said he doesn’t think his well is causing the temblors.

While the federal government prepares fracking regulations, states also monitor the process, which has led the industry to complain of unnecessary supervision.

The Obama administration is pursuing “an incoherent approach to natural gas development” by promoting its benefits while “ratcheting up pressure for new layers of duplicative regulations,” said Jack Gerard, president of the American Petroleum Institute, in remarks prepared for a speech today.

The institute represents more than 490 energy companies including Exxon Mobil Corp., the world’s largest company by market value.

 

 

 

Flikr creative commons: ProgressOhio

Natural gas from rock thousands of feet underground. The fracking process includes pumping millions of gallons of water, sand and toxic chemicals (including carcinogens) underground.

Evidence suggests that this risky process affects the water we drink, air we breathe, food we eat and climate we rely on for comfort. And like all oil and gas efforts, it endangers the wild places we love dearly. Here’s the ugly evidence:

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  1. Fracking disrupts and threatens wild lands

Fracking negatively impacts wild lands treasured by all Americans. Lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the Rocky Mountain West. Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, and New Mexico contain some of the most spectacular American landscapes but are also coveted for their natural gas resources. This spring, the BLM did announce a new policy for chemical disclosure on leased lands. The Wilderness Society strongly supports setting more stringent standards because these proposed rules don’t require public disclosure about fracking chemicals until after the drilling has been completed.

frackingsign.ProgressOhio_0

  1. Fracking contaminates drinking water

Last fall, the EPA released a report showing that fracking had contaminated groundwater in Wyoming, sparking a deluge of speculation about water pollution as a consequence of natural gas extraction. The evidence was used to back a claim that Pennsylvania water wells were polluted with methane. The New York Times’ own investigation in the state showed levels of radiation well beyond federal drinking-water standards. In places like Texas, it’s harder to get evidence, which some suspect is because of conflicts of interest.

There are 29 states with fracking in some stage of development or activity. Here is a map showing the location of U.S. shale gas plays, or shale formations in which natural gas is trapped (data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) courtesy of data.fractracker.org):

 

  1. Fracking pollutes the air with scary pollutants

Since Garfield County, Colorado has experienced fracking development, residents who live within a half mile of the natural gas wells have been exposed to air pollutants, like the carcinogen benzene and toxic hydrocarbons known to cause respiratory and neurological problems, according to a three-year study from the Colorado School of Public Health. Colorado allows companies to drill for natural gas within 150 feet of homes, so nearby residents could be facing acute and chronic health problems like leukemia in the long-term.

  1. Global warming gone overboard

In some ways, the most significant air pollutant is methane, a greenhouse gas that traps 20 to 25 times more heat in the atmosphere than does carbon dioxide. While some claim that the cost is worth the benefits if it means we can transition away from fossil fuels, it has been shown that the “footprint” of shale gas is actually 20 percent higher than coal.

  1. Even if you don’t drink the water, animals will

Of course, water pollution not only affects human populations, it affects other wildlife as well. This should concern anyone who eats meat, whether they hunt it or purchase it indirectly from a farm, which may incidentally be near a fracking well. In addition to degradation of habitat and interference with migration and reproduction, farmers have reported illness and death among domestic animals exposed to fracking wastewater.

  1. Fracking also causes earthquakes?

Hydraulic fracturing involves pumping massive amounts of water into the earth’s crust to break apart rock, so it should be no surprise that small earthquakes that have occurred in Ohio and Arkansas have been linked to nearby wastewater wells. The wastewater wells take in the water used to fracture the rock, and because the water is thousands of feet underground, it is under very high pressure. Since thousands of these new wells are being developed in populated areas, even small earthquakes are alarming for most of these areas haven’t been seismically active in the past.

  1. Despite recorded health risks, the facts are hard to find.

Fracking takes advantage of loopholes in federal laws designed to protect drinking water, so the chemicals used in drilling are not required by federal law to be publicly disclosed. Disclosure requirements for fracking chemicals differ widely from state to state, but the majority of states with fracking have no disclosure rules at all (only 14 out of the 29 have any). The rules that do exist are inadequate, failing to require disclosure of many important aspects, such as:

  • pre-fracking disclosure of all the chemicals that may be used (this makes it impossible to trace and prove the source of water contamination if it arises)
  • disclosure of the concentration of all chemicals
  • full disclosure to medical professionals in the event of an accident because of “trade secret” exemptions

Even for those states with laws, enforcement isn’t strict.

See also:

 

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The Environmental Protection Agency, which is preparing regulations to govern fracking with the Interior Department, plans to study the effect of the drilling procedure, also known as fracking, on drinking water. Additional studies should examine whether wastewater from the wells can harm people or animals and vegetables they eat, said Christopher Portier, director of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

“We do not have enough information to say with certainty whether shale gas drilling poses a threat to public health,” he said in an e-mail sent by Vivi Abrams, a spokeswoman.

President Barack Obama has lauded increased natural gas drilling as a way to reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil and on coal, which is more damaging to the environment when burned. Officials in his administration have been cautious when discussing possible health effects of hydraulic fracturing.

The EPA “will use its authorities to protect local residents if a driller endangers water supplies and the state and local authorities have not acted,” the agency’s administrator, Lisa Jackson, told Congress in May. Obama, she said, “has made clear that we need to extract natural gas without polluting our water supplies.”

Monitor Exposure

The fracking process injects water, sand and chemicals into deep shale formations to free natural gas. The compounds used should be monitored, Portier said, and drinking water wells should be tested before and after drilling. Studies also should address “all the ways people can be exposed” to fracking products, including through air, water, soil, plants and animals.

Increased use of the process has raised gas production, reduced prices 32 percent last year and spurred questions about the environmental effects.

The U.S. has sought to dismiss a lawsuit brought by New York Attorney General Eric T. Schneiderman against federal agencies, seeking stronger regulation of fracking at as many as 18,000 wells in his state. The petroleum industry says the lawsuit could shut down drilling in the Delaware River Basin “for many years to come” if successful.

‘Effective’ Regulation

“Measures required by state regulatory agencies in the exploration and production of deep shale natural gas and oil formations have been very effective in protecting drinking water aquifers from contamination attributable to fracking,” Chesapeake Energy, the second-largest producer of natural gas, said in a document in September explaining the process.

Portier wouldn’t say whether fracking should be stopped or more tightly regulated until studies are completed.

“Our role is to determine what the risks are, and it is up to the public to decide if they are OK with that risk,” he said.

U.S. natural gas production rose to a record 2.5 trillion cubic feet in October, a 15 percent increase from October 2008, the month before Obama was elected, according to an Energy Information Administration report issued Dec. 28.

Some “data of concern” are showing up at fracking sites, Portier said. Fluids used in drilling contain “potentially hazardous chemical classes” including petroleum distillates, volatile organic compounds and glycol ethers. Wastewater may also contain salts and be radioactive, he said.

In December, the EPA said for the first time that it had found chemicals consistent with those used in drilling in groundwater near wells in Wyoming. The driller, Encana Corp., has disputed the agency’s findings.

Methane, Earthquakes

Pennsylvania regulators warned residents near Scranton not to drink well water in September 2010 after methane was detected in the Susquehanna River and in wells near drilling sites.

Youngstown, Ohio residents say they’ve experienced earthquakes since D&L Energy Inc. began injecting fracking wastewater into a 9,300-foot disposal well. Ben Lupo, president and chief executive officer of the company, said he doesn’t think his well is causing the temblors.

While the federal government prepares fracking regulations, states also monitor the process, which has led the industry to complain of unnecessary supervision.

The Obama administration is pursuing “an incoherent approach to natural gas development” by promoting its benefits while “ratcheting up pressure for new layers of duplicative regulations,” said Jack Gerard, president of the American Petroleum Institute, in remarks prepared for a speech today.

The institute represents more than 490 energy companies including Exxon Mobil Corp., the world’s largest company by market value.

 

 

Microsoft Bi Annual UpGrade

Several days ago there were annoying regularities on most computers. Some were delivered good sound and disrupted video and others Normal Video and disrupted or sound you could hardly hear. They apologized  as it took most of the day  and evening to rectify the situation The irregularities on this site were probably   due to Microsoft and not your computer. For those of you  that commented on it, I hope all is back to normal now.

 

Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles: Paving the Way to Commercial Success

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Research focuses on boosting reliability, reducing costs, and designing infrastructure of the future.
As nations around the world pursue sustainable transportation solutions, the hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) presents a promising opportunity for consumers and automakers alike. Automakers have made steady progress reducing the cost and increasing the performance of fuel cell propulsion systems, and most major vehicle manufacturers are geared to launch Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs ) in the U.S. market between 2015 and 2020.
Although fuel cell technologies are proven and effective, deployment challenges persist—particularly in terms of further reducing the cost and increasing the durability of fuel cells and getting sufficient infrastructure in place to support widespread consumer use. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating with industry partners to remove some of these barriers.
In-line Diagnostics Help Reduce Cost, Improve Reliability
As the fuel cell manufacturing industry moves from small- to large-scale production, quality control is essential. Using NREL developed in-line diagnostics, manufacturers can more effectively identify defects in fuel cell components, leading to higher production volumes, improved reliability, and lower costs.

NREL’s Keith Wipke explains how a fuel cell electric vehicle works at an advanced vehicle ride-and-drive event at the NREL Education Center.
Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL
photo_news1_25248_large“The cost impact of defects could be huge,” said Senior Engineer Michael Ulsh. “A fuel cell stack can consist of hundreds of components. Because a single component failure could affect the whole stack, a 10% composite stack failure rate could drive up stack cost by 60%.”
To help address this challenge, researchers use an NREL-developed optical reflectance system to identify defects in fuel cell membranes and apply active infrared imaging techniques to identify defects in electrode materials. These methods have been validated on a small-scale manufacturing line that can convey fuel cell component materials at speeds of 100 feet per minute.
Supporting a Hydrogen Infrastructure Rollout
NREL recently joined H2USA, a public-private partnership designed to promote the widespread adoption of FCEVs. This new partnership focuses on overcoming the hurdles associated with establishing a robust hydrogen infrastructure.
“NREL’s participation in this partnership builds on the lab’s extensive fuel cell and hydrogen technology validation and analysis experience,” said Jen Kurtz, manager of the hydrogen analysis group. “Our hydrogen systems analysis staff will collaborate with a team of analysts from other national labs, universities, and key stakeholder groups to evaluate infrastructure roll-out strategies and the business case for commercialization.”

Fuel cell electric vehicles fill up at NREL’s hydrogen fueling station, which dispenses hydrogen made via renewable electrolysis.
Photo by John De La Rosa, NREL
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This team will combine analytic capabilities refined over many years of systems analysis to understand the technical, market, and investment challenges associated with the transition to hydrogen, electric, and other alternative fuel vehicles. NREL will contribute a suite of modeling and analysis capabilities developed over the last decade in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fuel Cell Technologies Office as well as technology validation; safety, codes, and standards; and market transformation expertise.
Renewable Hydrogen FCEVs
Because hydrogen can be made from a variety of domestic resources, FCEVs reduce our nation’s dependence on imported oil and diversify our transportation-related energy sources. While most hydrogen is currently produced from natural gas, NREL is investigating renewable hydrogen production technologies that tap into energy from the sun and wind.
“Here at NREL, we have four FCEVs on loan from Toyota that fill up on renewable hydrogen—wind turbines and solar arrays power electrolyzers that split water into hydrogen and oxygen,” Kurtz said. “We showcase these and other advanced vehicles at public events to raise awareness about the alternative transportation options available today and on the horizon.”
—Written by Julia Thomas

Salt of the Earth: What You Need to Know about Natural Sea Salt

Unprocessed salts from around the world are a treat for your palate—and your well being.
By Sophia V. Schweitzer
May/June 2002

Salts courtesy The Spice House, Milwaukee, Wisconsin / Photos by Joe Coca

“In it, we taste infinitude,” Chilean poet Pablo Neruda wrote of salt in Elementary Odes (Odas Elementales, 1954). Salt has been called the dust of the ocean and the essence of life. Salt is sacred. Entire civilizations have risen around it. It’s part of wedding ceremonies and religious offerings around the world. In Hawaiian tradition, the elders use salt as a purifier in all medicine and ritual. Our word “salary” is a daily reminder that salt served as legal tender in ancient Roman times.
Salt is vital to our health and well-being. There is nothing more elementally of this planet, and of who we are, than its shimmering crystals and its unmistakable taste.
But not all salts are the same. The Yellow Emperor’s Classic of Internal Medicine, published in China in 2700 bc, discusses more than forty different kinds. And in recent years, expensive, glittering sea salts are replacing regular, cheap table salts in the kitchens of natural homes and celebrity chefs. So what’s going on?
The salt crop
Whether mined inland from ancient deposits or evaporated along coastal shores, all salts originate in the sea. In its natural form, salt consists of eighty-plus different minerals, including calcium, magnesium, sulfur, copper, potassium and yes, even gold. The stuff that gives salt its characteristic saltiness, sodium chloride, makes up about 78 percent of this highly variable mix.
types-of-salt-top-300x150
Natural sea salt is harvested from coves, exposed rocks, or tidal basins. Artisan salt farmers often channel and rake the salty watersheds, then gather the exposed crystals by hand. Unrefined, this salt is ready for use just as it is.
Commercial sea salts are harvested mechanically, then treated with chemicals and additives until they measure a minimum of 98 percent sodium chloride. All the other minerals are removed. Far removed in manufacturing and taste from their natural source, these refined salts are like cheap wines—hard on body, mind, and soul, and better left alone.
Chef’s secret
In a recent survey conducted by Relais & Châteaux, 68 percent of chefs felt that salt is the one ingredient that can always make a food taste better. To many of them, nothing compares to unrefined, organic sea salt, dried in the sun.
“You use salt not to give food a salt flavor,” explains chef George Mavrothalassitis, owner of Chef Mavro Restaurant in Honolulu, “but to enhance and intensify the natural flavors that already exist. Regular salt is aggressive and takes away from the food. Natural salt is soft and sweet.” A Marseilles native, Mavrothalassitis relies on fine French sel de mer from Camargue, and for his signature snapper in a salt crust, he favors Hawaiian salt from the islands’ lava cliffs. He also prefers alaea salt, Hawaiian salt enriched with baked red clay. Chefs love alaea as much for its earthiness as for its rusty color. They may sprinkle it on seared white scallops or add a touch to grilled zucchini.

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Slippery History: How Soap Works

From ancient Babylon to Ma Perkins, soap has a rich and frothy past.

The basics of how soap works

5000 BC
Clay cylinders in ancient Babylon are inscribed
With instructions for boiling fats with ashes

4000 BC
Hebrews write on clay tablets about purifying of oils
Ash and lime-stone

1000 BC
Soap Gets the name from Mount Sapo, a sacred site where animals
were sacrificed during Roman rituals.
Women come from all around to bathe in melted animal fat and wood ash
Found in the Tiber river at the base of Mt. Sapo
Soap is formed when an acid, derived from the fats and oils of plants and animals, is combined with an alkali. Today most soapmakers use commercially available alkali such as sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide (caustic potash). When the fats and the alkali are combined, a chemical reaction called saponification occurs. And there you have it: soap.
And how does it work? Water has a property called surface tension. This tension is created as water molecules at the surface are pulled toward molecules at the bottom. Soap molecules have a head that is attracted to water and a tail that is attracted to dirt. The tail embeds itself in the dirt, and the head pulls itself toward the water, breaking the surface tension. When you rinse off, you wash away the soap molecules along with the dirt their tails are clinging to.
Clean ingredients
Even though they aren’t required to list ingredients, natural soapmakers such as Joshua Onysko of Pangea Organics generally do because they’re proud of them. Pangea soaps, for example, are made from a base of olive oil, coconut oil, soybean oil, and hempseed oil; naturally formed glycerin, herbs, flowers and spices; and essential oils.
What you put on your skin could be absorbed into your body, so it’s important to read ingredients. Seeing the word “organic” in a soap manufacturer’s name doesn’t guarantee all the ingredients are organic. Many people in the personal care industry believe that unless an ingredient is certified organic in California or another state with strict certification standards, it doesn’t mean much. “Coconut oil can be certified organic in SriLanka, but they still use DDT there, so I’d be concerned,” Joshua says.
CollectionStory_HeritageSoaps
Soothing, simple soaps
To make this soap, first purchase a solid, translucent glycerin soap base (available from Sun-Feather Natural Soap, (315) 265-3648). Melt it gently in a double boiler over medium heat. Add soothing botanicals, fragrant oils, and any other ingredients that please you, and stir. Then pour the thick liquid into a plastic soap mold or a plastic food storage container and let it cool.
Lavender and Rosemary Soap
3 cups glycerin soap base
1/4 cup infusion* of lavender flowers and rosemary leaves
1 1/2 teaspoons lavender oil
1/2 teaspoon rosemary oil
1 teaspoon pulverized dried rosemary (optional)

1. Combine melted base and botanicals. Stir until blended, then pour into molds and cool.
*Make an infusion: Infusions are delicate teas made by pouring hot, steamy non-chlorinated water over fresh or dried plant parts. Three tablespoons of dried or fresh herb per cup of water, steeped 10 minutes, will suffice.
Reprinted with permission from Soothing Soaps by Sandy Maine (Interweave Press, 1997).

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A Green Clean: Detox Your Home With These Eight Natural Cleaning Ingredients

f4e6256677359ae0ea7ba3dfe572e83bA Green Clean: Detox Your Home With These Eight Natural Cleaning Ingredients
Keep toxins out of your home and save money with safe, effective homemade cleaners.
July/August 2009
By Kim Erickson
Image GalleryDetox your home with these eight natural cleaning ingredients. Also, check out these recipes for effective, homemade cleaners.
Photo by Joe Lavine

Nothing feels as comforting and welcoming as a tidy, well-tended home. But a clean home isn’t necessarily a healthy one. As you peruse the cleaning aisle’s furniture polishes, air fresheners, carpet deodorizers and stain removers, you may realize that a full product arsenal could contain literally hundreds of chemicals and include dozens of safety warnings—not to mention cost a small fortune. Fortunately, you can create nontoxic, inexpensive counterparts to nearly every conventional cleaning product with items found in your pantry…
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency notes that conventional cleaning products make a significant contribution to indoor air pollution. In one study conducted at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, researchers found that the chemicals in everyday household cleaners can trigger the onset or worsening of asthma. Children with asthma can experience respiratory symptoms in a newly cleaned home. At least one study also suggests a possible link between prenatal exposure to low doses of common cleaning chemicals and attention deficit disorder or even autism in children.
Exposure to these everyday products can also affect your heart. Results from the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study, which were recently presented at a scientific session of the American Heart Association, showed that people exposed to pollutants—including household cleaners and air fresheners—experienced a narrowing of blood vessels and an increase in blood pressure.
Even seemingly benign products can cause health problems. Glass cleaners often contain ammonia, an eye irritant that can cause headaches and lung irritation. Disinfectants often harbor phenol and cresol, two petroleum derivatives that can cause dizziness and fainting. The polishes that make our floors and furniture shine include nitrobenzene, a carcinogen and reproductive toxin that can also cause short-term shortness of breath and nausea.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are toxic chemicals released by common cleaning products that can remain suspended in the air for days after use. Able to cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, VOCs can depress the central nervous system; irritate the eyes, nose and throat; and reduce pulmonary function. Long-term exposure can contribute to a variety of cancers.
The good news is that you don’t need to rely on these toxic chemicals for a spotless house. You can power through most household dirt with inexpensive and effective homemade cleaners. Plus, you can customize your cleaners with bacteria-busting essential oils.
Nontoxic cleaning kit You can clean your house from top to bottom with just eight simple ingredients. To save time and money, buy the ingredients in bulk and make cleaners in advance.

Green Clean: Detox Your Home With These Eight Natural Cleaning Ingredients
Baking Soda:
A truly multitasking cleaner, baking soda is a perfect substitute for cleaning powders that scour sinks and tubs without scratching. It’s also great for wiping down and deodorizing the fridge.In cleaning the fridge and after cleaning the oven use cinnamon mouth wash in warm water to give it a pleasant fragrance it is also great to flush the drain trough in the fridge which also takes any residue from the tubing to the drain tray. Combined with an equal amount of vinegar, baking soda can freshen drains and prevent them from clogging.
is

• Borax:
Combining equal amounts of white vinegar and borax will banish mold and mildew from hard surfaces. This natural mineral can also clean your toilet. Pour 1 cup of borax into the toilet bowl and let it sit for a few hours before scrubbing to eliminate stains and odor
• Distilled White Vinegar: This pantry staple cuts grease, eats away lime deposits and destroys odors. Because of its neutralizing properties, white vinegar is also good for washing windows, sanitizing kitchen counters and shining bathroom fixtures. Simply dilute 1 part vinegar in 4 parts water. A natural antibacterial because of its high acid content, vinegar is an effective alternative to caustic cleaners on toilets and floors.
• Hydrogen Peroxide:
Typically found in the medicine cabinet, this disinfectant can also be used as an effective bleach alternative in the laundry room. Because it’s also a powerful oxidizing agent, it works especially well on food, soil, plant, blood and other organic stains. Just make sure to spot test in a discreet area because, like bleach, hydrogen peroxide may lighten fabrics. For each average-size load of whites, add 8 ounces of 3 percent hydrogen peroxide after you have filled the washer with hot water.
• Salt:
Perfect for cleaning grungy ovens, this natural abrasive is also great for soaking up fresh carpet stains such as red wine, coffee or ink. Pour salt on the wet stain. Let dry, then vacuum.
• Vegetable Oil
(Castile) Soap: This natural soap is great for floors and all-purpose cleaning when combined with vinegar, borax or even warm water. For an all-purpose cleaner, add 1⁄2 teaspoon of soap to either 2 cups of water or to the “All-Purpose Cleaner and Disinfectant” recipe below. For floors, combine 2 teaspoons of soap with 3 gallons of water. Make sure to rinse well to remove any dulling residue.
• Washing Soda:
This old-fashioned laundry booster cuts through tough grease on grills, broiler pans and ovens. Because washing soda is a strong alkaline, it’s perfect for tackling dirty linoleum floors. But because it’s caustic and strong enough to strip wax and peel paint, wear gloves when using—and use sparingly. Adding just 1⁄4 to 1⁄2 teaspoon of washing soda to 32 ounces of hot water will tackle the toughest grease.
• Lemons:
Lemon’s citric acid content cuts stubborn grease and makes your home smell fresh. Lemon juice is also a natural bleach, especially when combined with the sun. Freshen cutting boards by rubbing a cut lemon over the surface. This is especially effective for banishing fish odors. Undiluted lemon juice can also be used to dissolve soap scum and hard water deposits.

How To Live Green With Sue Kelly News Letter August 2016

Sue And Shawn Kelly

Sue And Shawn Kelly

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I am making many improvements To My Site

1. You asked for a news letter Here It Is

2 . I have a new domain email: suekelly@howtolivegreen.com

3 I have kept the present email howtolivegreen@gmail.com

4. On the resources page I have a link which is also in my latest post to get your eco friendly products online and delivered to your home by UPS The newest concentration is 12X They have a 50 SPF sunscreen that does not wash off while swimming an after sun and a natural ingredient insect repelent.

http://trck.me/406284/

5. I am looking for a drop shipper for the other resourses you will need so you can order them right from the resour ce page.

6. Please become a subscriber the link works I added my email onto it today.

7. Please send your requests for future posts or expansion of present subjects to me At suekelly@howtolivegreenwithsuekelly.com

I am planning a post on Fracking and it’s effects on health, the environment and safety.

Also some information from CDC on damage to the environment and health.

If you can think of other areas I have not touched let me know by email

I have a new Face Book Fan Page How To Live Green With Sue Kelly many of you have businesses of your own and might want to Get a Fan Page for yourself. You can put your links on a Fan Page but not on a standard face book page, You will get Pure Leverage FREE for one month after that it is $24.00/month through GVO much less than what Facebook Charges to promote it.

http://fanpagesystem.com/launch/2?id=SueAndShawnKelly

Melaleuca Preferred Customers Who Enroll In July And August Can Offer $1 Annual Memberships Until August 31st

Sue And Shawn Kelly

Sue And Shawn Kelly

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dollar kits

The summer is just heating up! July saw a continuation of what has been an amazing period of explosive growth! In August, we’re shaking it up for you and your new August enrollees! It’s the perfect time to partner with your new enrollees to help them reach Director. Preferred Customers who enrolled in July or August can offer $1 Memberships all month long! Shake things up in your business by enrolling your next business partner and helping them set their first appointments. As you enroll new Preferred Customers in August, you’ll both earn some of Melaleuca’s most popular fitness products—along with a little extra. Read More

August 1–31, 2016

Monthly Update
Shake It Up

Only at Melaleuca will you find an array of healthy fitness shakes that include patented CraveBlocker, the unmatched technology of GC Control, the fat-burning power of Access, and strength-building Ultra-Performance Protein that will propel you toward your fitness goals. Visit our Vitality For Life site to see how the perfect blend of all-natural ingredients offered in Melaleuca shakes can help you become a healthier YOU! As you quality enroll new Preferred Customers in August, you’ll be enjoying the best in fitness nutrition for free! It’s the perfect time to partner with your new enrollees to help you and them reach Director.

Melaleuca Biobased, Chemical -Free Earth Conscious Products For The Home Now 12X Concentration

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Preferred Customers Who Enroll
Become a Preferred Customer for $1 untill August 31,2016

In July And August
Can Offer $1 Annual Memberships Until August 31, 1916
What you get with membership
You can Earn Loyalty Dollars to use on products
You can extra Loyalty dollars with Learn To Earn
For the first 5 months you receive free products.
to try
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Place an order for 35 product points to guarantee all of these free Gifts

www.melaleuca.com_
About Melaleuca

Melaleuca. Not exactly an ordinary name. Then again, Melaleuca isn’t exactly an ordinary company.

In less than 30 years it has grown from a little startup in rural Idaho to a billion-dollar enterprise doing business in 17 countries around the globe. It has become one of the largest catalog and online retailers in North America. And it is the largest manufacturer of consumer packaged goods in the Northwest. Today, more than a million people shop with Melaleuca every month.

From the beginning, it was destined to be different. Probably because it was created to put people first. People before profit. People before anything else. It’s mission? Enhancing the lives of those we touch by helping people reach their goals.

People reaching goals… well, that’s the stuff life is all about. And not just any goals. Big goals. The desire to be happy. To be well. In every aspect of life. That’s what makes Melaleuca different. Melaleuca is The Wellness Company. And by wellness, we mean complete wellness. Total wellness. In four distinct but connected areas.

It starts with improving your health with a full line of world-class wellness products, supplements, nutrients, functional foods, and breakthrough innovations that naturally and effectively reduce weight, increase nutrition, and advance health. So people can live with vitality and purpose at every stage of life.

Melaleuca is also on a mission to improve our environment with non-toxic, home-cleaning products that are safer for your home and allow you to live clean without the hazards of harsh chemicals. Melaleuca is a world leader in concentrated products. Products that require less water to make, less fuel to ship, and less plastic to package. It’s better for the environment inside your home… and outside.

Melaleuca goes a step beyond and does what no other company can. Melaleuca makes it possible to improve your financial well-being. How? By providing a step-by-step plan that reduces debt and increases your monthly income. So far, Melaleuca has shared over 3.6 billion dollars with families like yours. Just for referring friends to shop.

It’s unlike anything else but that helps Melaleuca on its mission to improve your overall quality of life. Your personal wellness. To give you more time to enjoy the things you love, with the people you love the most. The health to do the things that matter most. And the resources to make it all happen.

It is a lofty ambition: helping people reach their goals. Not something an ordinary company cares all that much about. Then again, Melaleuca is anything but ordinary.
Join Us

Melaleuca Facebook | Melaleuca Twitter | Melaleuca Google+ | Melaleuca YouTube | Melaleuca Pinterest | Melaleuca LinkedIn
Other Melaleuca Sites

Melaleuca Product Reviews | Melaleuca Blog | Melaleuca News | Melaleuca Field
Melaleuca Freedom Celebration | Melaleuca Foundation | Melaleuca Information | Melaleuca Jobs | Melaleuca Awards
About Our CEO

ceoImgFrank L. VanderSloot is CEO of Melaleuca, Inc. in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Since the company began in September of 1985, VanderSloot has directed its growth into an international company that generates more than $1 billion in annual revenue. This is done through a sales force reaching hundreds of thousands of households across North America, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, China, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Germany, Austria, the Netherlands, Ireland, and the United Kingdom.

Learn more about our CEO Frank L. VanderSloot.
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